What is Shock Chlorine and how is it used?

WHAT IS SHOCK CHLORINE

Shock chlorine is the common name for Calcium hypochlorite, a powder chemical with the formula Ca(ClO)2. It is widely used for water treatment and as a bleaching agent (bleaching powder). This chemical is considered to be relatively stable and has greater available chlorine (65%) than sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach).

  • Other names: Hypochlorous acid, calcium salt / Bleaching powder / Calcium Oxychloride, shock chlorine
  • CAS No: 7778–54–3
  • EC No: 231–908–7
  • UN No: 1748
  • Appearance: white or grey/white powder with odour of chlorine
  • Molar Mass: 142.98 g/mol
  • Density: 2.35 g/cm3
  • Melting Point: 100oC

Uses for Shock chlorine

SHOCK CHLORINE FOR USE IN SWIMMING POOLS & SPAS:

Calcium hypochlorite is used for the disinfection of drinking water or swimming pool water. For use in outdoor swimming pools, calcium hypochlorite can be used as a sanitizer in combination with a cyanuric acid stabilizer. The stabilizer will reduce the loss of chlorine because of UV radiation. Calcium does make the water hard and tends to clog up some filters. However, some types of calcium hypochlorite do contain anti-scaling agents in order to prevent clogging up of pipes/filters. This grade of calcium hypochlorite can also be used in hard waters. The main advantage of calcium hypochlorite is that it is unstabilised unlike chlorinated isocyanurates such as sodium dichloroisocy­anurate or trichloroisocy­anuric acid. Latter products do contain cyanuric acid. If the level of cyanuric acid becomes too high, it will influence the performance of the chlorine.

Pools running on calcium hypochlorite should have a chlorine level of 1–2 ppm (mg/L).

Calcium hypochlorite is also used for bleaching cotton and linen and is used in the manufacture of chloroform.

For whitening in laundry one normally uses approx 200mls of 5% bleach per load. As the calcium hypochlorite is 65% chlorine then you will need around 15g of the calcium hypochlorite per wash. alternatively you can make a 5% solution by adding 77g of calcium hypochlorite to 1 litre of water and use 200mls of this solution.

Other uses are:

  • As a bathroom cleaner
  • For Cleaning secondhand items
  • Adds glow to glass dishware
  • As a Household disinfectant spray
  • It remove moss and algae from paths, patios and driveways
  • Use to sanitize garden tools
  • Kills weeds in walkways
  • Preserves and keeps cut flowers fresh
  • Can be used to Clean garden furniture,

Disinfecting drinking water with Shock Chlorine:

Calcium hypo is used extensively throughout the world to purify drinking water and make it safe. you can either add it directly into water or make up stock solutions to use to treat batches of water. The first is better as stock solutions will deteriorate with time.

As a simple rule of thumb add 0.5g of solid calcium hypochlorite to 100 litres of water (dissolve the 0.5g in about 1 litre of water first and then add this to the 100 litres).

To read an article on how to disinfect water using Calcium Hypochlorite click here.

Health & Safety:

CLASS C: Oxidizing material. CLASS E: Corrosive solid.

R22– Harmful if swallowed. R38– Irritating to skin. R41– Risk of serious damage to eyes.

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Where to Buy Shock chlorine / Calcium Hypochlorite online in the UK

Where to Buy sodium dichloroisocy­anurate / SDIC online

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Where can i buy Shock Chlorine online UK and Ireland

WHAT IS SHOCK CHLORINE

Shock chlorine is the common name for Calcium hypochlorite, a powder chemical with the formula Ca(ClO)2. It is widely used for water treatment and as a bleaching agent (bleaching powder). This chemical is considered to be relatively stable and has greater available chlorine (65%) than sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach).

  • Other names: Hypochlorous acid, calcium salt / Bleaching powder / Calcium Oxychloride, shock chlorine
  • CAS No: 7778–54–3
  • EC No: 231–908–7
  • UN No: 1748
  • Appearance: white or grey/white powder with odour of chlorine
  • Molar Mass: 142.98 g/mol
  • Density: 2.35 g/cm3
  • Melting Point: 100oC

Uses for Shock chlorine

SHOCK CHLORINE FOR USE IN SWIMMING POOLS & SPAS:

Calcium hypochlorite is used for the disinfection of drinking water or swimming pool water. For use in outdoor swimming pools, calcium hypochlorite can be used as a sanitizer in combination with a cyanuric acid stabilizer. The stabilizer will reduce the loss of chlorine because of UV radiation. Calcium does make the water hard and tends to clog up some filters. However, some types of calcium hypochlorite do contain anti-scaling agents in order to prevent clogging up of pipes/filters. This grade of calcium hypochlorite can also be used in hard waters. The main advantage of calcium hypochlorite is that it is unstabilised unlike chlorinated isocyanurates such as sodium dichloroisocy­anurate or trichloroisocy­anuric acid. Latter products do contain cyanuric acid. If the level of cyanuric acid becomes too high, it will influence the performance of the chlorine.

Pools running on calcium hypochlorite should have a chlorine level of 1–2 ppm (mg/L).

Calcium hypochlorite is also used for bleaching cotton and linen and is used in the manufacture of chloroform.

For whitening in laundry one normally uses approx 200mls of 5% bleach per load. As the calcium hypochlorite is 65% chlorine then you will need around 15g of the calcium hypochlorite per wash. alternatively you can make a 5% solution by adding 77g of calcium hypochlorite to 1 litre of water and use 200mls of this solution.

Other uses are:

  • As a bathroom cleaner
  • For Cleaning secondhand items
  • Adds glow to glass dishware
  • As a Household disinfectant spray
  • It remove moss and algae from paths, patios and driveways
  • Use to sanitize garden tools
  • Kills weeds in walkways
  • Preserves and keeps cut flowers fresh
  • Can be used to Clean garden furniture,

Disinfecting drinking water with Shock Chlorine:

Calcium hypo is used extensively throughout the world to purify drinking water and make it safe. you can either add it directly into water or make up stock solutions to use to treat batches of water. The first is better as stock solutions will deteriorate with time.

As a simple rule of thumb add 0.5g of solid calcium hypochlorite to 100 litres of water (dissolve the 0.5g in about 1 litre of water first and then add this to the 100 litres).

To read an article on how to disinfect water using Calcium Hypochlorite click here.

Health & Safety:

CLASS C: Oxidizing material. CLASS E: Corrosive solid.

R22– Harmful if swallowed. R38– Irritating to skin. R41– Risk of serious damage to eyes.

.

Where to Buy Shock chlorine / Calcium Hypochlorite online in the UK

Where to Buy sodium dichloroisocy­anurate / SDIC online

.

Where can i buy calcium hypochlorite online UK and Ireland

WHAT IS CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE

Calcium hypochlorite is a powder chemical with the formula Ca(ClO)2. It is widely used for water treatment and as a bleaching agent (bleaching powder). This chemical is considered to be relatively stable and has greater available chlorine (65%) than sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach).

  • Other names: Hypochlorous acid, calcium salt / Bleaching powder / Calcium Oxychloride
  • CAS No: 7778–54–3
  • EC No: 231–908–7
  • UN No: 1748
  • Appearance: white or grey/white powder with odour of chlorine
  • Molar Mass: 142.98 g/mol
  • Density: 2.35 g/cm3
  • Melting Point: 100oC

Uses for Calcium Hypochlorite

CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE FOR USE IN SWIMMING POOLS & SPAS:

Calcium hypochlorite is used for the disinfection of drinking water or swimming pool water. For use in outdoor swimming pools, calcium hypochlorite can be used as a sanitizer in combination with a cyanuric acid stabilizer. The stabilizer will reduce the loss of chlorine because of UV radiation. Calcium does make the water hard and tends to clog up some filters. However, some types of calcium hypochlorite do contain anti-scaling agents in order to prevent clogging up of pipes/filters. This grade of calcium hypochlorite can also be used in hard waters. The main advantage of calcium hypochlorite is that it is unstabilised unlike chlorinated isocyanurates such as sodium dichloroisocy­anurate or trichloroisocy­anuric acid. Latter products do contain cyanuric acid. If the level of cyanuric acid becomes too high, it will influence the performance of the chlorine.

Pools running on calcium hypochlorite should have a chlorine level of 1–2 ppm (mg/L).

Calcium hypochlorite is also used for bleaching cotton and linen and is used in the manufacture of chloroform.

For whitening in laundry one normally uses approx 200mls of 5% bleach per load. As the calcium hypochlorite is 65% chlorine then you will need around 15g of the calcium hypochlorite per wash. alternatively you can make a 5% solution by adding 77g of calcium hypochlorite to 1 litre of water and use 200mls of this solution.

Other uses are:

  • As a bathroom cleaner
  • For Cleaning secondhand items
  • Adds glow to glass dishware
  • As a Household disinfectant spray
  • It remove moss and algae from paths, patios and driveways
  • Use to sanitize garden tools
  • Kills weeds in walkways
  • Preserves and keeps cut flowers fresh
  • Can be used to Clean garden furniture,

Disinfecting drinking water with calcium hypochlorite:

Calcium hypo is used extensively throughout the world to purify drinking water and make it safe. you can either add it directly into water or make up stock solutions to use to treat batches of water. The first is better as stock solutions will deteriorate with time.

As a simple rule of thumb add 0.5g of solid calcium hypochlorite to 100 litres of water (dissolve the 0.5g in about 1 litre of water first and then add this to the 100 litres).

To read an article on how to disinfect water using Calcium Hypochlorite click here.

Health & Safety:

CLASS C: Oxidizing material. CLASS E: Corrosive solid.

R22– Harmful if swallowed. R38– Irritating to skin. R41– Risk of serious damage to eyes.

Where to Buy Calcium Hypochlorite online in the UK

Where to Buy sodium dichloroisocy­anurate / SDIC online

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Where can I buy Dipropylene Glycol (DPG) online in UK and Ireland

WHAT IS DPG / DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL

Dipropylene glycol is a colourless, nearly odourless liquid with a high boiling point and low toxicity. It is a mixture of three isomeric chemical compounds, 4-oxa-2,6-heptandiol, 2-(2-Hydroxy -propoxy) -propan-1-ol, and 2-(2-Hydroxy-1-methyl-ethoxy) -propan-1-ol.

  • Chemical Names: oxydipropanol, oxybispropanol, bis(2-hydroxypropyl) ether, 2,2′-dihydroxydipropyl ether, 1,1′-dimethyl diethylene glycol, 1,1′-oxydi-2-propanol, 2,2′-dihydroxyisopropyl ether, 2-(2-hydroxypropyl)-1-methyl ethanol, 1-(2-hydroxypropoxy) propan-2-ol, hydroxyprpyl oxypropanol
  • CAS NO: 25265–71–8
  • Description: Liquid at room temperature, colourless and Odourless.
  • Actual Specific Gravity : 1.02140 @ 25.00 C.
  • Specific Gravity : 1.01900 – 1.02100 @ 25.00 C.
  • Actual Refractive Index : 1.44140 @ 20.00 C.
  • Refractive Index : 1.43000 – 1.45000 @ 20.00 C.
  • Assay: 99.00 – 100.00 %
  • Soluble in : Benzyl Alcohol, Benzyl Benzoate, Alcohol, Isopropyl Myristate, Amyris Wood Oil
  • Insoluble in : Water
  • EINECS: 246–770–3
  • FORMULA: CH3-CH(OH)-CH2-O-CH2-CH(OH)-CH3
  • CONTENT: Min 99 %

Uses for dipropylene glycol:

Perfumery Uses :

  • Making Diffuser oils (see below for details)
  • Very good fragrance diluent and quencher.

Other effective uses of DPG are:

  • Hydraulic brake fluid formulations
  • Cutting oils
  • Textile lubricants
  • Printing inks
  • Coatings
  • Industrial soaps
  • Solvent for agri chemicals eg. insecticides.

How to make your own DIFFUSER OIL:

  • 30% Fragrance oil
  • 60–65% DPG
  • 5–10% Perfumers alcohol

To make diffuser oil, blend the fragrance oil with the DPG until clear. Add Perfumers alcohol to reduce viscosity to desired thickness.

To read an article on how to make your own Reed Diffuser click here

Where to Buy Dipropylene glycol online in the UK

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What is Dipropylene Glycol (DPG) and how is it used

WHAT IS DPG / DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL

Dipropylene glycol is a colourless, nearly odourless liquid with a high boiling point and low toxicity. It is a mixture of three isomeric chemical compounds, 4-oxa-2,6-heptandiol, 2-(2-Hydroxy -propoxy) -propan-1-ol, and 2-(2-Hydroxy-1-methyl-ethoxy) -propan-1-ol.

  • Chemical Names: oxydipropanol, oxybispropanol, bis(2-hydroxypropyl) ether, 2,2′-dihydroxydipropyl ether, 1,1′-dimethyl diethylene glycol, 1,1′-oxydi-2-propanol, 2,2′-dihydroxyisopropyl ether, 2-(2-hydroxypropyl)-1-methyl ethanol, 1-(2-hydroxypropoxy) propan-2-ol, hydroxyprpyl oxypropanol
  • CAS NO: 25265–71–8
  • Description: Liquid at room temperature, colourless and Odourless.
  • Actual Specific Gravity : 1.02140 @ 25.00 C.
  • Specific Gravity : 1.01900 – 1.02100 @ 25.00 C.
  • Actual Refractive Index : 1.44140 @ 20.00 C.
  • Refractive Index : 1.43000 – 1.45000 @ 20.00 C.
  • Assay: 99.00 – 100.00 %
  • Soluble in : Benzyl Alcohol, Benzyl Benzoate, Alcohol, Isopropyl Myristate, Amyris Wood Oil
  • Insoluble in : Water
  • EINECS: 246–770–3
  • FORMULA: CH3-CH(OH)-CH2-O-CH2-CH(OH)-CH3
  • CONTENT: Min 99 %

Uses for dipropylene glycol:

Perfumery Uses :

  • Making Diffuser oils (see below for details)
  • Very good fragrance diluent and quencher.

Other effective uses of DPG are:

  • Hydraulic brake fluid formulations
  • Cutting oils
  • Textile lubricants
  • Printing inks
  • Coatings
  • Industrial soaps
  • Solvent for agri chemicals eg. insecticides.

How to make your own DIFFUSER OIL:

  • 30% Fragrance oil
  • 60–65% DPG
  • 5–10% Perfumers alcohol

To make diffuser oil, blend the fragrance oil with the DPG until clear. Add Perfumers alcohol to reduce viscosity to desired thickness.

To read an article on how to make your own Reed Diffuser click here

Where to Buy Dipropylene glycol online in the UK

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Where can I buy Glycerine BP online in UK and Ireland

What is Glycerine

Glycerine BP is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerine also known as Glycerol is sweet-tasting and of low toxicity. Glycerine has three hydrophilic hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature.

  • Chemical Names: Glycerol, Glycerin, 1, 2, 3 propane triol, Trihdroxy propane.
  • Description: Clear, colourless, odourless hydroscopic syrupy liquid.
  • EINECS: 200–289–5
  • CAS No: 56–81–5
  • FORMULA: C3H8O3
  • Glycerine content: Min 99.9%
  • Specific gravity 25/25oC: Not less than 1.257
  • Refractive index: 1.471–1.474
  • Viscosity: 1.2–1.4 Pa.s

Meets the requirements of: EC Directive 98/86/EC. EP/BP 1999 and USP XXII

*BP test method

Where to Buy Glycerine BP online UK

Applications

In organic synthesis, glycerol is used as a readily available prochiral building block.

Glycerin can also serve as a substitute for petroleum based products. Glycerin derived epichlorohydrin and propylene glycol are substitutes for petroleum-based propylene.

Research laboratory usage

Glycerol is a common component of solvents for enzymatic reagents stored at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius due to the depression of the freezing temperature of solutions with high concentrations of glycerol. It is also dissolved in water to reduce damage by ice crystals to laboratory organisms that are stored in frozen solutions, such as bacteria, nematodes, and fruit flies. Samples are loaded into agarose gel electrophoresis mixed in loading buffers that mainly consist of glycerol; when the sample is injected into wells, the glycerol causes the solution to sink through the running buffer to the bottom of the well.

Pharmaceutical and personal care applications

Glycerol is used in medical and pharmaceutcal and personal care preparations, mainly as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication and as humactant or moisturiser. It is found in cough syrups, elixirs and toothpaste, mouthwashes, skin care products, shaving cream, hair care products, and soaps.

As a 10% solution, glycerol prevents tannins from precipitating in ethanol extracts of plants (tinctures). It is also used as a substitute for ethanol as a solvent in preparing herbal extractions. It is less extractive and is approximately 30% less able to be absorbed by the body.Fluid extract manufacturers often extract herbs in hot water before adding glycerin to make glycerites.

Used as a laxative when introduced into the rectum in suppository or liquid (enema) form; irritates the bowel and induces a hyperosmotic effect.

Glycerol is a component of glycerol soap. Other ingredients include, denatured ethanol, sodium castorate (from castor), sodium cocoate, sodium tallowater, sucrose/sugar, perfume and water. This kind of soap is used by people with sensitive, easily-irritated skin because it prevents skin dryness with it’s moisturising properties. It is possible to make glycerol soap at home.

It is also used in de- icing/anti-icing fluids normally mixed with alcohol or propylene glycol or both and water

In motion-picture production, glycerol is used as a non-evaporating substitute for perspiration on actors. It is also used in the formulation of some types of stage blood.

Potential uses

Some potential uses for glycerol include the following:

  • Nicotine carrier for use in electronic cigarettes
  • Glycerine acetate (as a potential fuel additive)
  • Compost additive
  • For Tincture extraction and preservation of Essential oils and chemicals from herbs.
  • Citric acid production
  • Cosmetic bonding agent for makeup, including: eye shadow, lipstick, lipgloss, and lotions and also including eyedrops as well
  • Can be used to moisten hookah tobacco if it’s too dry or bought as “dry” tobacco..
  • Conversion to propylene glycol
  • Conversion to ethanol
  • Glycerol may be used as antifreeze for plants, if mixed with water in a 10% solution. It is believed to be effective at temperatures near –18?C
  • Glycerin may serve as a source of energy used in waste water treatment plant digesters

Preserving Tree Branches

  1. Cut branches when color begins to change, before the leaves are completely tinted. (Fully turned leaves are too dry and brittle.) Beech, oak, wild apple, mountain ash and copper beech are well suited for this method of preservation.
  2. Use a solution of 2 parts water to 1 part glycerine. The amount needed depends on the size of the branches. (The stems must be in liquid to a depth of 3 to 4 inches.)
  3. Trim off any small twigs at the bottom of the branch. Slit the bottom of each stem with a sharp knife to 3 or so inches.
  4. Next, bruise the stalks with a hammer.
  5. Arrange the branches in a container of the water/glycerine mixture and place in a cool room for a week to ten days. The leaves will last for years! Makes great centerpieces and displays.

Where to Buy Glycerine BP online UK

Where to buy glycerine GR Grade


Where can I buy acetone online in UK and Ireland

WHAT IS ACETONE

Acetone is a clear, colorless, low-boiling, flammable and volatile liquid characterized by rapid evaporation and a faintly aromatic, sweetish odor. It readily mixes with most organic solvents and mixes completely with water. However, compatibility should be checked prior to mixing with other solvents or materials

  • Synonyms: B-ketopropane, dimethyl ketone, dimethylformal­dehyde, DMK, propanone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one
  • CAS NO: 67–64–1
  • Appearance: clear liquid
  • Colour: <5 Pt-Co
  • Distillation BP: 56.2oC
  • Melting point: –94.9oC
  • Flash Point: –20oC
  • Autoignition temperature: 465oC
  • Assay: 99.5 % Min
  • Water: 0.1% max
  • Non volatile residue: 20 ppm max
  • Acidity as acetic acid: 20 ppm max
  • Permanganate fading time: 90 minutes min

Applications for Acetone:

  • Nail varnish remover
  • Nail extension remover
  • cosmetic products
  • Pharmaceutical applications
  • Laboratory reagent
  • Paint remover formulations
  • Solvent
  • Cleaner & Degreaser

Acetone is used as a solvent by the pharmaceutical industry and as a denaturation agent in denatured alcohol. In the laboratory, acetone is used as a solvent in a variety of organic reactions , such as SN2 reactions. The use of acetone solvent is also critical for the Jones oxidation. It is a common solvent for rinsing laboratory glassware because of its low cost, volatility, and ability to dissolve water. For similar reasons, acetone is also used as a drying agent. Acetone can be cooled with dry ice to –78 oC without freezing; acetone/dry ice baths are commonly used to conduct reactions at low temperatures. Acetone is fluorescent under ultraviolet light, and acetone vapor may be used as a fluorescent tracer in fluid flow experiments.

Acetone is often the primary component in cleaning agents such as nail polish remover. Acetone is a component of superglue remover and it easily removes residues from glass and porcelain.

Acetone is a good solvent that is a component of some paints and varnishes, as well as for most plastics and synthetic fibres. It is ideal for thinning fiberglass resin, cleaning fiberglass tools and dissolving two-part epoxies and superglue before hardening. A heavy-duty degreaser, it is useful in the preparation of metal prior to painting; it also thins polyester resins, vinyl and adhesives.

Acetone can also dissolve many plastics, including those used in Nalgene bottles made of polystyrene, polycarbonate and some types of polypropylene.

Many millions of kilograms of acetone are consumed in the production of the solvents methyl isobutyl alcohol and methyl isobutyl ketone. These products arise to give diacetone alcohol.

2 (CH3)2CO(CH32C(OH)CH2C(O)CH3

It can be used as an artistic agent; when rubbed on the back of a laser print or photocopy placed face-down on another surface and burnished firmly, the toner of the image is allowed to transfer to the destination surface. Some automotive enthusiasts add acetone at around 1 part in 500 to their fuel, following claims of dramatic improvement in fuel economy and engine life.

This practice is controversial as the body of systematic testing shows that acetone has no measurable effect or may in fact reduce engine life by adversely affecting fuel system parts.

Where to Buy Acetone online in the UK and Ireland