Rust Removal Methods

Rust stains can cause a number of problems for home and business owners because of their destructive tendencies. Rust stains are often a shade of reddish brown or dark red. Inside pipes, rust can create rusty water stains wherever water flows. While rust stains can be bothersome, they can be removed with a little hard work and the help of a rust remover. There are a number of rust remover products available on the market, but several common household items can also be used to battle rust stains. These household items can be used individually or combined to create effective, safe rust remover products.

Cream of tartar, hydrogen peroxide 3%, and borax can be combined to create a homemade rust remover paste. To make this rust remover, a teaspoon of cream of tarter and a quarter cup of borax should be mixed with enough hydrogen peroxide to make a thick paste. The paste should be rubbed onto the rust spot and allowed to stand for 30 minutes. Then, the rust stain should be wiped away with a damp sponge. If the stain remains, the entire process should be repeated.

Another homemade rust remover solution is a cup of borax mixed with the juice from one lemon. This mixture makes a rust remover paste that can be applied directly to the stain. It should sit for twenty to thirty minutes and then be scrubbed clean. It might take a couple applications for this rust remover to be successful, but this concoction is safe for many surfaces, as well as safe for pets and children.

Oxalic acid is often recommended as a good product for removing rust stains. Oxalic acid is mildly toxic but not as abrasive as other commercial products. Before you try a harsher chemical, try removing rust stains with oxalic acid. Be sure to wear gloves and safety glasses when using this method.

What you will need

  • Dishwashing liquid
  • Bucket
  • Soft or medium-bristled brush
  • Oxalic acid


  1. Pour 1/2 cup dishwashing liquid into a bucket. Fill the remainder of the bucket with cool water.
  2. Wash the rust-stained area with the dishwashing liquid. Use a soft- to medium-bristled scrub brush (depending on surface type) to thoroughly clean the area. Rinse the dishwashing liquid thoroughly with cool water.
  3. Pour one pound of oxalic acid into a gallon bucket. Fill the remainder of the bucket with cool water.
  4. Apply the oxalic acid to the rust stain. If the rust stain is on concrete, use a mop. If the rust stain is on another surface, use a sponge to apply the oxalic acid to the stain.
  5. Scrub the stain with a soft- to medium-bristled brush (depending on surface type) to lift the stain. Rinse the area thoroughly with cool water.


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The Trickle Method – Treating Varroa Mites

Varroa destructor is an external parasitic mite that attacks honey bees. The disease caused by the mites is called varroatosis.

Varroa destructor can only replicate in a honey bee colony. It attaches at the body of the bee and weakens the bee by sucking fluids inside bees called hemolymph. In this process the mite spreads RNA viruses like deformed wing virus to the bee. A significant mite infestation will lead to the death of a honey bee colony, usually in the late autumn through early spring. The Varroa mite is the parasite with the most pronounced economic impact on the beekeeping industry. It may be a contributing factor to colony collapse disorder (CCD).

The Trickle Method

The final treatment of the colonies in autumn or early winter is a component of many anti-Varroa treatment regimes. The aim is to reduce the Varroa infestation level to an absolute minimum, so that in the following season there is no problem with Varroa before the late summer.

Using oxalic acid has proved itself to be effective in beekeeping practice. It is one method of anti Varroa treatment which does not cause residues in the hive products, and is an organic substance. The treatment is carried out after the colony has ceased to rear brood. In this brood free condition one treatment is sufficient to achieve an effectiveness of over 90%.

Many strong colonies with older queens cease to rear brood in October. In nucleus colonies with young queens this is seldom the case. This might possibly be due to their development phase only ending in late summer, while the older stronger colonies have already reached their peak of development by June. Brood rearing in autumn is influenced by apiary location, but more so by the weather. The first night frosts cause the queen to stop egg laying. Three weeks later the colony is brood free. At this time the oxalic acid trickle method is at its most effectiveness. The removal of the hive roof and crown board to facilitate the treatment has no detrimental effect on the bees.

The Trickle Method

Description of the Trickle Method

The treatment is carried out using a warm sugar syrup solution at an oxalic acid concentration of 3.5% applied using a syringe or some other suitable device. The procedure should be carried out in such a manner that it can be administered in a droplet form.

Warm tap water may be used to make up the solution.

The solution should be stored for immediate use only, in a bottle with a secure top and clearly marked as to the contents. Any calcium in the water will combine with the oxalic acid and precipitates as insoluble calciumoxalate crystals. The effect on concentration of the solution will be negligible. The addition of sugar to the solution will merely result in a more rapid mite fall, it has no effect on the efficiency or bee tolerance and does no harm. During the treatment the weather must be cold, a few degrees above freezing is ideal. Smoke should be used only sparingly, if at all as the colonies are clustered tightly due to low temperature.

The colonies cluster under a deep crown of stores in November/ December. The treatment of colonies on single brood chambers is relatively easy since the cluster position can be seen. In the case of double brood chambers it is often more difficult, especially if the bees are clustered in the lower box. The use of a torch may expose the position of the cluster or the top box may be tipped up. In this way the treatment can be trickled into and not onto the cluster. It is best to take a little care and time when treating. It is better to do two passes over each frame space. The more bees which are in contact with the solution the better the treatment will be tolerated and the solution will be more readily distributed around the colony. It is a good idea to note the number of seams of bees as soon as the hive is opened and the bees are tight clustered. As treatment proceeds the cluster tends to break up, and you have more seams of bees than was first noticed. Treat for the number of seams first noticed, but spread the acid over as many bees as possible.

According to the size of the colony the dose varies between 30-50 millilitres. 30 millilitres if the colony is tightly clustered in temperatures under or at 0ºC and only covering 4-5 frames, 50 millilitres when the cluster is on six or seven frames.

The treatment must only be administered once.

Repeated applications are not tolerated well by the bees. Large numbers of bees will become over acidified and fly prematurely and not show as mortality on the hive floor. In colonies free of brood a second treatment would be superfluous anyway.

The mite fall resulting from the late treatment should be noted. The mite drop continues to increase over a four to five week period, even when most of the poisoned mites drop during the first week after treatment

An Overview of The Trickle Method

1. A 3.5% solution of oxalic acid and sugar. (200 g sugar  and 35g oxalic acid. Accurate measurements dissolved in 3/4 litre of warm water, then more warm water added to the solution to make a 1 litre total quantity).

2. 100 ml syringe.

3. Acid proof gloves (important!)

4. Each colony is dosed with 30 to 50 ml. of solution at a dosage of five to six ml. Per Occupied frame space. (seam)

5. Treatment is in November or December at just above 0°C. Try to administer when there is some weather coming up that will enable them to fly and relieve themselves Administer treatment in as many droplets of solution as possible and drip onto as many bees as possible. (Do not shake or squirt solution onto bees!)

6. Mite fall continues for four to five weeks.

7. Good efficiency only in brood free colonies.

8. Two applications is one too many.

Where to Buy Oxalic Acid online UK

How To Make Your Own Reed Diffusers

Reed diffusers have become very popular, and it’s not surprising that many people want to make their own using essential oils. Most store-bought reed diffusers use synthetic fragrances, but making your own natural reed diffuser oil with essential oils is simple. This article outlines how.

What You Need to Make Your Own Reed Diffuser

Decide on a recipe and calculate how much of each ingredient, glass bottles (and what sizes), and how many diffuser reed sticks you’ll need. Before you begin, make sure you have everything you need.

Ingredients and Supplies You Need to Make a Reed Diffuser:

Essential oil(s) (You also may use fragrance oils.)
Dipropylene glycol, fragrance grade
Perfumer’s alcohol (You may or may not need this.)
Diffuser reeds (Reeds should be a few inches taller than the bottle.)
Narrow neck glass bottle (Do not use plastic or metal containers.)

How to Make a Reed Diffuser

1. Add your reed diffuser oil to the glass bottle (Instructions on how to make the oil is detailed below). Don’t fill the bottle completely full. There must be enough space so that when you put in the diffuser reeds the liquid doesn’t spill over the top.

2. Put the cap on the bottle and mix by gently turning the bottle upside down a few times.

3. Remove the cap and insert the diffuser reeds, and fan them out. It may take several hours for the oil to wick all the way up the reeds and diffuse the scent into the room. You can “refresh” your reed diffuser by flipping over the reed sticks every few weeks.

Reed Diffuser Oil Ingredients:

There are three basic components of natural reed diffuser oils:

1. Essential oils, which provide the fragrance. You also may use synthetic fragrance oils.
2. Reed diffuser oil base, Dipropylene glycol (fragrance grade). The base dilutes the essential oil or fragrance oil, and helps the reed diffuser oil wick up the reeds.

3. Perfumer’s alcohol, which thins the diffuser oil to allow better wicking.

Making Your Fragrance

Your imagination is nearly your only limit when it comes to which essential oils to use in your reed diffuser oil. Use single oil or a blend. But note that thick or heavy essential oils do not work well in reed diffuser oil blends.

If you want a reed diffuser oil that is as strongly fragrant as store-bought reed diffusers, you may need to use synthetic fragrance oil instead of essential oil.

Make Reed Diffuser Oils

Make your reed diffuser oil with about 30% to 40% essential oil and about 60% to 70% dipropylene glycol or reed diffuser base oil. Slightly more or slightly less of either ingredient should work, too. If the diffuser oil is too thick (viscous) and doesn’t absorb up the reeds well, you can add 5% or 10% perfumer’s alcohol to make your formula more wickable.

Buy Dipropylene glycol (fragrance grade)

Buy Perfumers Alcohol


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Using Hydrogen Peroxide for Cleaning

Hydrogen peroxide is a great way to clean all sorts of things. It works well at killing germs, whitening items, cleaning, and even fighting mould and mildew. In fact, it is a good replacement for bleach and can be used in all the ways that bleach can without the harmful side effects, dangerous fumes, and harm to the environment. You can use bleach all over the house and in a wide range of methods for a very sparkling home that has less bacteria.

Surfaces. Put hydrogen peroxide 3% into a spray bottle and use it as an all purpose cleaner. This can be used for appliances, counters, sinks, dish racks, and other surfaces in the kitchen. In addition, it can be used as a cleaner in the shower, tub, toilet, and the bathroom sink. Spray the surface, leave it for a few moments and wipe it clean for a fresh smelling and clean surface.

Floors. Use your spray bottle to spray the floor down and wipe it clean. Or add 1 cup of peroxide 3% to 1/2 gallon of hot water and give your floor a really good scrubbing.

Toilets. Pour hydrogen peroxide 3% from the bottle up and around the rim of the toilet. Pour additional hydrogen peroxide 3% on your brush. Scrub the toilet as usual. This will kill bacteria and clean it sparkling. It is also a good idea to spray down any surfaces on top, down the sides, and around the base with hydrogen peroxide 3% from your spray bottle for a very clean effect.

Mould and mildew. Hydrogen peroxide 3% will kill mould and mildew without the harsh results of bleach. Spray on heavily to mould and mildew spots or stains and let sit for ten minutes. Scrub clean.

Dishes. Add 1/2 cup of hydrogen peroxide 3% to your dishwasher or dish water and have cleaner dishes. This will aid in the cleaning, add a sparkling touch, and will kill bacteria. Plus if it is used in a dishwasher it will help keep the dishwasher cleaner longer.

Laundry. Add a cap full (the white cap on the bottle) to the laundry with about 1/2 the normal amount of soap and you will have cleaner laundry that is also whiter. If you use bleach on your whites then replace the bleach with peroxide 3% and wash as normal for white whites without the harm of bleach.

Stains. Peroxide 3% can help remove organic stains from grout, cloth, and carpet

It can bleach so test the material in a place that isn’t as easily seen. Then use it on the stain. Pour directly on stain, scrub clean with a brush and rinse well.

Sponges. Keep your sponges clean by soaking it in hydrogen peroxide 3% and then letting it dry. You will want to leave it in a dish of peroxide 3% (it can be diluted for making it go father, use 50% water and 50% peroxide 3%). Let soak five to ten minutes (or more). This will kill the bacteria in the deepest parts of the sponge. Then let it dry in the air. Let it dry thoroughly before using again.

Hydrogen peroxide 3% is inexpensive, easy to use, and can keep your house clean. Use it all over and you will have fewer bacteria without adding dangerous chemicals to your house. It is safe for people and their pets, won’t harm the environment, and will still keep your house clean.


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Using Hydrogen Peroxide for Ailments

Hydrogen peroxide has many different medicinal uses.  It has been used over the years in home remedies, listed below are a few of these remedies.

  • A mixture of half 3% hydrogen peroxide and half water can be used to treat canker sores (mouth ulcers). Use a cotton bud to apply the mixture directly to the canker sore.
  • Swish your toothbrush in 1 cup of 3% hydrogen peroxide solution prior to use. If you don’t like the taste of hydrogen peroxide, you may rinse your toothbrush with clean water prior to use, but if you choose not to rinse the peroxide mixture off before brushing your teeth, in addition to disinfecting your toothbrush, the hydrogen peroxide will help whiten your teeth.
  • Hydrogen peroxide for foot fungus may work, although scientific studies have not been done to confirm its usefulness. Use a 3% solution, as the stronger preparations are less safe and may cause skin reactions. Approaches include soaking in the peroxide, wiping onto the affected areas several times daily, or spraying it on and allowing it to dry. It is likely to produce results much faster for athletes foot fungus than for a nail infection. On thing is undeniable: as a foot fungus remedy, it is one of the cheapest.
  • Remarkable results can be achieved in curing colds and the flu within 12-14 hours when we administer a few drops of 3% Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) into each ear. The H2O2 starts working within 2-3 minutes in killing the cold or flu. There will be some bubbling and in some cases mild stinging might occur. Wait until the bubbling subsides – usually a few minutes – then drain onto a tissue and repeat with the other ear.
  • If you have a toothache, put a capful of 3% hydrogen peroxide into your mouth and hold it for ten minutes several times a day. This will relieve the pain.
  • Put half a bottle of 3% hydrogen peroxide in your bath to help rid boils, fungus, or other skin infections.
  • If you like a natural look to your hair, spray a solution of half 6% hydrogen peroxide half water on your wet hair after a shower and comb it through. You will not have the peroxide burnt blonde hair like the hair dye packages, but more natural highlights if your hair is a light brown, faddish, or dirty blonde.  It also lightens gradually so it’s not a drastic change.

If you have any of your own home remedies using hydrogen peroxide, please feel free to post them up in the comments section.


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How to Disinfect Water Using Calcium Hypochlorite

Using granular calcium hypochlorite to disinfect water is a two step process.
1. To make a stock of chlorine solution, dissolve 1 heaping teaspoon (about 8g) of high-test (78%) granular calcium hypochlorite for each two gallons (eight litres) of water. (do not drink this!)
2. To disinfect water add one part of the chlorine solution to 100 parts water to be treated.
3. Let the mixture sit for at least one-half hour before drinking.
Be sure to obtain the dry granular calcium hypochlorite since once it is made into a liquid solution it will begin to degrade and eventually become useless as a disinfecting agent. This also means you should make your treated drinking water in small batches, for example enough for a few weeks at a time at most.
Another plus for using calcium hypochlorite to disinfect water for emergency use is that a little goes a very long way. A 500g bag of calcium hypochlorite in granular form typically will treat up to 10,000 gallons of drinking water, which is enough for a family of four for some six or seven years at a gallon per day per person!
Calcium hypochlorite will store for a long period of time and remain effective as a chemical drinking water treatment. So get rid of the household bleach and buy a can of Calcium hypochlorite for your disaster emergency water disinfection needs. It lasts far longer and treats far more water than the traditional chlorine bleach water disinfection treatment.


  • Be sure to carefully read and follow all handling directions and heed all warnings.
  • It is always a good idea to be using calcium hypochlorite in an extremely well ventilated area.
  • If calcium hypochlorite becomes contaminated by foreign substances it can cause combustion.
  • Do not breathe the dust or get it in your eyes.

Where to Buy Calcium Hypochlorite online in the UK

Using Calcium Hypochlorite Instead of Bleach to Disinfect Water

Many outdoorsmen, survivalists, and households preparing for emergency disasters rely upon common household bleach as a disinfecting agent to make water safe to drink.
Bleach will destroy most disease causing organisms (boiling water to make it safe to drink is always the best method).
What is not well known is Calcium Hypochlorite is far better for chemically disinfecting water.

Old Way: Using Bleach to Disinfect Water

Some people who have emergency preparedness stocks of survival food and survival gear often keep a gallon or two of unscented household bleach on hand for making safe drinking water in large quantities. Bleach is often the chemical of choice because it is commonly available and frequently mentioned when discussing the how-to’s of drinking water.
Typical fresh household chlorine bleach has about 5.35% chlorine content (be sure to read the label).

To use household bleach for disinfecting water:
1. Add two drops of bleach per quart or litre of water.
2. Stir it well.
3. Let the mixture stand for a half hour before drinking.

If the water is cloudy with suspended particles:
First filter the water as best you can.
Double the amount of bleach you add to the water.

Why Using Bleach to Disinfect Contaminated Water is a Problem

A little known problem with long term storage of bleach in your disaster emergency supply cache is that it degrades over time. A bleach manufacturing representative produced this statement:
“We recommend storing our bleach at room temperatures. It can be stored for about 6 months at temperatures between 50 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. After this time, bleach will begin to degrade at a rate of 20% each year until totally degraded to salt and water. Storing at temperatures much higher than 70 degrees Fahrenheit could cause the bleach to lose its effectiveness and degrade more rapidly.”
So if bleach is unreliable for long term storage in emergency preparedness kits then what other commonly available chemical methods of disinfecting water are there? As it turns out a better solution is easily available.

Use Calcium Hypochlorite for Disinfect Water

A 500g bag of calcium hypochlorite in granular form will treat up to 10,000 gallons of drinking water
Calcium hypochlorite is one of the best chemical disinfectants for water, better than household bleach by far. It destroys a variety of disease causing organisms including bacteria, yeast, fungus, spores, and viruses.
Calcium Hypochlorite is widely available for use as swimming pool chlorine tablets or white powder that is much more stable than chlorine.

Where to Buy Calcium Hypochlorite online in the UK