What is Ketopentamethylene and what is it used for ?


What is Ketopentamethylene

Ketopentamethylene, commonly known as Cyclopentanone is a clear colourless liquid organic compound with a peppermint-like odour and is a cyclic ketone. It is a flammable compound with vapour heavier than air. It is produced from adipic acid by heating to 285–295C in the presence of barium hydroxide.
Cyclopentanone is an intermediate used in the production of rubber chemicals, insecticides, biologicals and pharmaceuticals.

Properties of Ketocyclopentane

  • Synonyms: Cyclopentanone; Ketocyclopentane; Adipic ketone; Cyclopentan-1-one; Dumasin; Ketopentamethylene; oxocyclopentane;
  • Formula: C5H8O
  • CAS No: 120–92–3
  • EINECS No: 204–435–9
  • Purity: >99%
  • Appearance: Clear colourless liquid
  • Molar mass: 84.12 g/mol
  • Density: 0.95 g/cm3
  • Solubility:almost insoluble in water (9g/L)


  • Melting point: –58.2 C
  • Boiling point: 130.6 oC
  • Flash point: 26 C
  • Autoignition temperature: 445 C
  • Refractive index: 1.432–1.438
  • Relative vapour density (air=1): 2.3
  • Vapour pressure: 14 mm Hg @25C
  • Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient: log Kow= 0.24 (est)

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The composition of cyclopentanone consists of C 71.39%, H 9.59% and O 19.02%. Cyclopentanone has a vapour which is heavier than air making it a dangerous environment to work in. The substance easily polymerizes under the influence of acids. It is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohols, acetone, ether and most organic solvents. It reacts with oxidising agents like hydrogen peroxide.

Uses for Ketopentamethylene:

  • Used in production of cylopentanone derivatives for use in the perfume industry eg Cyclopentylamine, Cyclopentanol and jasmine-fragrant material.
  • Manufacture of insecticides and pesticides.
  • Used in the production of synthetic resins and rubber adhesives.
  • Intermediate in the pharmaceutical industry.
  • Laboratory reagent.
  • Used as a thinner for epoxies.
  • As a solvent it is used in paint and varnish removers, as dry cleaning agent and for oil extraction.

Health & Safety:

Symbol – Xi
Risk phrases: R10 Flammable. R36/38 Irritating to eyes and skin.
Safety phrases: S23 Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapou­r/spray.
UN Hazard Class: 3
UN Packing Group: III

For full details see MSDS for Ketopentamethylene


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What is Potassium sodium 2,3-dihydroxysuccinate and what is it used for ?

E337 Potassium sodium tartrate

What is Potassium sodium 2,3-dihydroxysuccinate

Potassium sodium 2,3-dihydroxysuccinate is Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate, commonly called Rochelle salt is an odourless, colourless to white crystalline solid with a salty taste. It is the double salt of tartaric acid. It is soluble in water but insoluble in alcohols. Potassium Sodium Tartrate is prepared from potassium bitartrate and sodium carbonate. Commercially it is produced as a by-product of the wine industry.

Properties and specification of Potassium sodium 2,3-dihydroxysuccinate

  • Synonyms: Potassium Sodium Tartrate; E337; Seignette’s salt; Rochelle salt; Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate; Potassium sodium 2,3-dihydroxysuccinate; L(+)-Tartaric acid potassium Sodium salt; butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, potassium sodium salt
  • CAS number: 304–59–6
  • EINECS: 206–156–8
  • Purity: >99%
  • Appearance: colourless / white crystalline solid
  • Formula:KNaC4H4O6.4H2O

    potassium sodium tartrate structure

  • Molecular weight: 282.1
  • pH: 7–8.5
  • Density: 1.79
  • Specific gravity: 2.75 g/cm3
  • Solubility in water: soluble 630g/L @20C
  • Melting point: 75C
  • Boiling point: 220C
  • Refractive index: 1.59
  • Oil Absorption: 37g/100g

The chemical composition of Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate consists of Water 24.53%, Potassium 13.85%, Sodium 8.15% and Tartaric acid 53.17%. When heated it melts at 70–80C; at 100C it loses 3 water molecules and eventually becomes anhydrous at 130–140C; at 220C it begins to decompose. Potassium Sodium Tartrate has the linear formula KOCOCH(OH)CH(OH)C­OONa.4H2O

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How to make Potassium sodium 2,3-dihydroxysuccinate

The salt is prepared by adding 0.5M sodium carbonate to a hot solution of 1M potassium bitartrate (cream of Tartar). The solution is mixed thoroughly and then filtered while hot. This solution is then dried to precipitate solid potassium sodium tartrate, as small crystals.

General Uses for Potassium sodium 2,3-dihydroxysuccinate

As additive in food industry ( E337 ) where it acts as sequestrant, emulsifier, stabilizer, buffer and antioxidant in cheese products, margarine, jellies, jams, minced meat, and sausage casings.

In pharmacology it is used as saline cathartics (usual adult dose: 5–10g). potassium bitartrate is administered rectally as a suppository with sodium bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide, which promotes defecation by distending the rectal ampulla; administered for relief of constipation, and evacuation of the colon before surgical or diagnostic procedures or childbirth. It is not to be used on persons with heart problems or those on low sodium diets.
Potassium Sodium Tartrate is also used for the removal of toxic materials in some cases of poisoning.

Other applications include the preparation of piezoelectric crystals used in electrical appliances; as a laxative; in the manufacture of mirrors; in the plating industry; as a laboratory reagent; in the preparation of Fehlings solution for the detection of aldehydes; and for delaying the quick-setting of gypsum .

Health & Safety

This substance is not classified as dangerous according to Directive 67/548/EEC.

For full details see MSDS for Potassium sodium 2,3-dihydroxysuccinate


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Other Tartrate salts:

 DiSodium Tartrate Dihydrate GRG

Sodium hydrogen tartrate monohydrate – Sodium Bitartrate

Potassium Tartrate – Sodium Bitartrate

What is Ferric trichloride hexahydrate – what is it used for ?

ferric trichloride hexahydrate

What is  Ferric trichloride Hexahydrate

Ferric trichloride hexahydrate, commonly known as Ferric chloride hexahydrate,  is a yellow or brown crystalline salt which is very soluble in water and alcohols. It occurs in nature as the mineral molysite. It is manufactured from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The anhydrous salt is then hydrated to produce the hexahydrate Ferric trichloride. It is used in water treatment, copper etching, photoengraving, photography, the manufacture of pigments and ink and as laboratory reagent.

  • Other Names: Iron trichloride hexahydrate, Ferric chloride hexahydrate, Ferric trichloride hexahydrate,  Iron III chloride hexahydrate, Molysite, Flores martis,
  • Formula: FeCl3 6H2O
  • EEC No. 231–729–4
  • CAS No. 10025–77–1
  • UN No. 1773
  • Purity >97%
  • Appearance: Yellow / brown crystalline solid
  • Molar mass: 270.3 g/mol
  • Density: 1.82 g/cm3
  • Melting point: 37 C
  • Boiling Point: 280 C decomposes
  • Solubility in water: 92 g/100 mL @20C
  • pH: 2 (0.1M in water)
  • Vapour pressure: 1 hPa (1 mmHg) at 194C

Ferric chloride is soluble in water, acetone, methanol, ethanol and diethyl ether. Iron(III) chloride undergoes hydrolysis to give an acidic solution. The chemical composition of ferric chloride hexahydrate is Fe 20.66% Cl 39.35% and Water 39.99%. The crystal structure of ferric chloride hexahydrate has been determined from x-ray diffraction to show that in the crystals two chloride ions and four water molecules are arranged around each ferric ion to form octahedral [FeCl2(OH2)4]+ i­ons.

Uses for Ferric trichloride

Ferric Chloride forms a corrosive solution which is used as a coagulant in sewage and wastewater treatment and drinking water production. It is used to remove suspended solids and particulate matter from water. As a flocculant it has the function of precipitating heavy metals and sulfides, bleaching, deodorization, degreasing, sterilizing, dephosphorizing and decreasing the COD & BOD of effluent water.

It is commonly used as an etchant for copper-based metals in printed circuit boards. Iron(III) chloride etches copper in a two-step redox reaction to copper(I) chloride and then to copper(II) chloride in the production of printed circuit boards. “Click Here” for instructions on how to make up etching solution.

Other uses include:

  • The anhydrous Ferric chloride is a powerful dehydrating agent and is used as a drying agent in certain reactions.
  • Staining blades of swords and knives.
  • Etching the widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites.
  • For the etching of photogravure plates for printing photographic and fine art images in intaglio and for etching rotogravure cylinders used in the printing industry.
  • In the manufacture of pigments and inks.
  • Used in veterinary practice to treat overcropping of an animal’s claws.
  • Sometimes used in the technique of Raku firing as an additive during the reduction process, turning a pottery piece a burnt orange color due to the iron content present in the reducing atmosphere.
  • Used to test the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels and other alloys.
  • It is also used as a leaching agent in chloride hydrometallurgy. Used in the chlorination of silver and copper ores.
  • Iron(III) chloride is used as catalyst for the reaction of ethylene with chlorine, forming ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane), an important commodity chemical, which is mainly used for the industrial production of vinyl chloride, the monomer for making PVC.
  • As an oxidizer and mordant in dyeing and printing textiles.
  • In the construction industry it can enhance the unit strength of concrete when adding a little of ferric chloride solution to the concrete mix.
  • Used by American coin collectors to identify the dates of Buffalo nickels that are so badly worn that the date is no longer visible.
  • Ferric chloride is used to make red-brown rosinates in varnishes.

Ferric trichloride In the laboratory

iron(III) chloride is commonly employed as a Lewis acid for catalysing reactions such as chlorination of aromatic compounds and Friedel-Crafts reaction of aromatics. It forms adducts with Lewis bases such as triphenylphosphine oxide, e.g. FeCl3(OPPh3)2.

Iron(III) chloride is a mild oxidising agent, for example, it is capable of oxidising copper(I) chloride to copper(II) chloride.

When heated with iron(III) oxide at 350C, iron(III) chloride gives iron oxychloride.

Reducing agents such as hydrazine convert iron(III) chloride to complexes of iron(II).

Reacts with cyclopentadienyl magnesium bromide in one preparation of ferrocene, a metal-sandwich complex.

Used in conjunction with NaI in acetonitrile to mildly reduce organic azides to primary amines.

It is used to produce Weigerts iron hematoxylin solution for nuclear stains and trichrome staining.

Health & safety R22 Harmful if swallowed. R34 Causes burns.

Safety phrases: S26 In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. S36/37/39 Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection. S45 In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible).

For full details see MSDS for Ferric trichloride hexahydrate


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Buy Ferric chloride 40% solution

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