Is Acetone dangerous to use ?

What is Acetone

Acetone is a clear, colorless, low-boiling, flammable and volatile liquid characterized by rapid evaporation and a faintly aromatic, sweetish odor. It readily mixes with most organic solvents and mixes completely with water.

  • Synonyms: B-ketopropane, dimethyl ketone, dimethylformal­dehyde, DMK, propanone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one
  • CAS NO: 67–64–1
  • Appearance: clear liquid
  • Colour: <5 Pt-Co
  • Distillation BP: 56.2oC
  • Melting point: –94.9oC
  • Flash Point: –20oC
  • Autoignition temperature: 465oC
  • Assay: 99.5 % Min
  • Water: 0.1% max
  • Non volatile residue: 20 ppm max
  • Acidity as acetic acid: 20 ppm max
  • Permanganate fading time: 90 minutes min

Uses for Acetone:

  • Nail varnish remover
  • Nail extension remover
  • cosmetic products
  • Pharmaceutical applications
  • Laboratory reagent
  • Paint remover formulations
  • Solvent
  • Cleaner & Degreaser

Acetone is a colorless and highly flammable manufactured liquid. It has a distinctive fruity or mint-like odor and a pungent taste. It is also found naturally in plants, trees, volcanic gases, and forest fires, and as a by-product of the breakdown of body fat. It is found in vehicle exhaust, tobacco smoke, and landfillsites.
Acetone is used as a solvent to dissolve other substances, such as paints, varnishes, lacquers, fats, oils, waxes, resins, printing inks, plastics, and glues. It is used to make plastics, fibers, drugs, rayon, photographic film, smokeless powder, and other chemicals. It is also used for cleaning and drying precision parts.

Household and consumer products that contain acetone include fingernail polish remover, particle board, paint remover, liquid or paste waxes and polishes, detergent, cleaning products, and rubber cement.

How might one be exposed to acetone?

You can be exposed to acetone by breathing it, ingesting it, or absorbing it through your skin. Exposure can occur if you smoke cigarettes, or breathe second-hand cigarette smoke. You can also be exposed if you are exposed to isopropyl alcohol, which has medical and solvent uses, because isopropyl alcohol changes to acetone in the body.

At home, you can be exposed to acetone by using nail polish remover, household cleaners, paints, adhesives, rubber cement, particle board, or other products that contain acetone. You can be exposed by drinking water or eating food containing acetone. Exposure can occur if you live near a landfill site that contains acetone, near busy roads, or near other facilities such as incinerators that release acetone emissions.

At work, you can be exposed to acetone if you work at a facility that manufactures paints, plastics, chemicals, artificial fibers, and shoes. You can also be exposed if you work with paints, solvents, glues, and commercial cleaning products.

How can acetone affect health?

Exposure to high levels of acetone can cause death, coma, unconsciousness, seizures, and respiratory distress. It can damage your kidneys and the skin in your mouth.

Breathing moderate-to-high levels of acetone for short periods of time can cause nose, throat, lung, and eye irritation. It can also cause intoxication, headaches, fatigue, stupor, light-headedness, dizziness, confusion, increased pulse rate, nausea, vomiting, and shortening of the menstrual cycle in women.

Breathing highly concentrated acetone vapors can irritate the respiratory tract, and burn your eyes. Skin contact with acetone can irritate or damage your skin.

Exposure to acetone can also cause low blood pressure, bronchial irritation, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, and an increased need to urinate.

What should I do if one is exposed to acetone?

If you breathe acetone, move to a place with fresh air. If the person exposed has trouble breathing, get medical help immediately.
If acetone is on your skin, wash with soap and water for at least 15 minutes. Take off any clothes or shoes with acetone on them. If your symptoms are very bad, get medical help.
If you get acetone in your eyes, flush your eyes with water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention promptly.
If you drink acetone, get medical attention immediately.

What factors limit use or exposure to acetone?

At work, it is best to have good ventilation. A mask can be worn for protection. Your manager or safety person can suggest the best protective masks to wear. Wear boots, gloves, a lab coat, apron or coveralls to prevent skin contact. Goggles or a face shield can protect you from accidental acetone splashes. Workplaces where acetone can be a problem should have an eye wash fountain or quick-drench system.
At home, limit exposure by staying away from cigarette smoke. Avoid solvents such as nail polish remover, paints and cleaning products containing acetone.

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Where to Buy Acetone online in the UK

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How to use Acetone safely

What is Acetone

Acetone is a clear, colorless, low-boiling, flammable and volatile liquid characterized by rapid evaporation and a faintly aromatic, sweetish odor. It readily mixes with most organic solvents and mixes completely with water. However, compatibility should be checked prior to mixing with other solvents or materials

  • Synonyms: B-ketopropane, dimethyl ketone, dimethylformal­dehyde, DMK, propanone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one
  • CAS NO: 67–64–1
  • Appearance: clear liquid
  • Colour: <5 Pt-Co
  • Distillation BP: 56.2oC
  • Melting point: –94.9oC
  • Flash Point: –20oC
  • Autoignition temperature: 465oC
  • Assay: 99.5 % Min
  • Water: 0.1% max
  • Non volatile residue: 20 ppm max
  • Acidity as acetic acid: 20 ppm max
  • Permanganate fading time: 90 minutes min

Applications for Acetone:

  • Nail varnish remover
  • Nail extension remover
  • cosmetic products
  • Pharmaceutical applications
  • Laboratory reagent
  • Paint remover formulations
  • Solvent
  • Cleaner & Degreaser

How to use Acetone safely

Acetone, also called dimethyl ketone, is one of the ketone group of solvents that also includes methyl ethyl ketone. Mechanics, painters, and fiberglass workers are frequent users of acetone for various purposes in the shop, and many people are familiar with its pleasant sweet-smelling odor. Acetone is an excellent solvent for oils and greases. It is often used in the electronics industry for degreasing and cleaning of precision electronic parts. It is also used in the formulation of lacquers, rubber cements, cleaning fluids, and paint removers, as well as the manufacture of methacrylic and epoxy resins. Acetone can also absorb 22 times its volume of acetylene gas, which permits safe and economical shipment of acetylene in cylinders.

Acetone is one of the least toxic of the many organic solvents used in the work place. Its toxicity is low for both acute and chronic exposures. However, prolonged inhalation of high concentrations of acetone vapor causes irritation of the respiratory tract, headache, loss of memory, and in extreme cases, unconsciousness. Other symptoms of acetone intoxication include dizziness, nausea, or drowsiness. Continued skin contact may produce a mild form of dermatitis.

Control Vapor Concentrations: Acetone vapor in work areas should be maintained at or below the Threshold Limit Value of 750 PPM (averaged during an 8-hour workday), with a maximum Short Term Exposure Limit (defined as 15 minutes) no higher than 1000 PPM. For most operations, vapor can be kept at safe levels by enclosing the operation, by ventilating, or both. Opening windows or doors is often adequate for most small uses. Local exhaust may be needed with larger operations in order to capture the vapors at the source and keep them out of the breathing zone.

Wear PPE: Employees engaged in routine handling of acetone should wear milled butyl rubber gloves and rubber aprons for protection against skin contact. Chemical goggles should be worn where necessary. When complete face protection is necessary, a face shield should be worn.

Fire Prevention: Acetone is a serious fire hazard and can ignite with only a 2.6% concentration in the air. Water solutions of acetone are also highly flammable; a solution of 10 percent acetone in water has a flash point of about 80 F (27C). All sources of ignition, including spark-producing mechanisms or operations should be eliminated in areas where acetone is stored, handled, or used. Vapor proof electrical systems should also be installed (Class 1 – Division 1). Fire extinguishers for acetone fires include foam, carbon dioxide, and dry chemical. Water used on an acetone fire should be in the form of a spray or fog in order to prevent spreading the fire.

First Aid: If a person has inhaled small amounts of acetone vapor and exhibits any of the symptoms of acetone intoxication, they should be moved to fresh air and the effects will often disappear in a few hours. If large amounts have been inhaled, the person should be moved to fresh air and medical assistance immediately summoned. If breathing has stopped or respiration is weak; artificial respiration should be given. If splashed in the eyes, the eyes should be irrigated immediately with large quantities of running water for at least 15 minutes. An evaluation by a physician as soon as possible is recommended. Skin contaminated with acetone should be washed with soap and water, and any contaminated clothing removed.

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Where to Buy Acetone online in the UK

How to make copper sulfate

This is an easy way to produce copper sulfate either at home, at school or in a laboratory.

Please note: As you will be working with hot water it is important that children are supervised at all times.

Ingredients needed to make your own copper sulfate crystals:

  • Copper carbonate or black copper oxide
  • Sulfuric acid
  • a clean beaker
  • A conical flask
  • A glass rod
  • A tripod
  • an evaporating dish
  • Gauze
  • Filter paper
  • A funnel
  • goggles
  • Gloves

Instructions on how to make copper sulfate:

  • Using gloves and goggles add sulfuric acid to copper carbonate or copper oxide until no more dissolves.
  • You will know when you have added enough as no more gas will be produced.
  • Filter the solution through the filter paper in a funnel onto an evaporating dish.
  • Heat the solution gently over a bunsen burner until most of the solution has evaporated and allow to cool.
  • crystals of copper sulfate will start to form on the dish.

Notes:

Always wear appropriate personal protection equipment when handling sulfuric acid as it is very corrosive.

Where to buy quality Copper Sulfate

Where to buy copper carbonate

Where to buy copper oxide black

How to make copper sulphate

This is an easy way to produce copper sulphate either at home, at school or in a laboratory.

Please note: As you will be working with hot water it is important that children are supervised at all times.

Ingredients needed to make your own copper sulphate crystals:

  • Copper carbonate or black copper oxide
  • Sulphuric acid
  • a clean beaker
  • A conical flask
  • A glass rod
  • A tripod
  • an evaporating dish
  • Gauze
  • Filter paper
  • A funnel
  • goggles
  • Gloves

Instructions on how to make copper sulphate:

  • Using gloves and goggles add sulphuric acid to copper carbonate or copper oxide until no more dissolves.
  • You will know when you have added enough as no more gas will be produced.
  • Filter the solution through the filter paper in a funnel onto an evaporating dish.
  • Heat the solution gently over a bunsen burner until most of the solution has evaporated and allow to cool.
  • crystals of copper sulphate will start to form on the dish.

Notes:

Always wear appropriate personal protection equipment when handling sulphuric acid as it is very corrosive.

Where to buy quality Copper Sulphate

Where to buy copper carbonate

Where to buy copper oxide black

How to make Bordeaux Mixture with Copper Sulphate and Hydrated Lime

Copper sulphate Pentahydrate

calcium hydroxide

Copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4), is a common salt of copper. Copper sulfate exists as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydration. The anhydrous form is a pale green or gray-white powder, while the hydrated form is bright blue. The archaic name for copper(II) sulfate is “blue vitriol” or “bluestone”. The most common form of copper sulphate is in the pentahydrate form and there are over 100 manufacturers producing around 200,000 tonnes per annum. Approximately three-quarters of copper sulphate pentahydrate is used in agriculture, principally as a fungicide, but also for treating copper-deficient soils. Two commonly used fungicide solutions containing copper sulphate are the Bordeaux Mixture and the Burgundy Mixture.

What is a Bordeaux Mixture ?

The Bordeaux mixture (also known as the Bordo Mix) was developed in the 19th century in France to control a downy mildew that caused problems on vines in the Bordeaux region of France. It contains a blend of copper sulphate and hydrated lime in water and is used to control different diseases on a wide range of plants and crops. It is used mainly to control garden, vineyard, nursery and farm infestations of fungi. It is the copper ions in the bordeaux mixture which kills the fungal spores by preventing the spores germinating. As such, the product is only effective as a prevention and not as a treatment for the fungus after it has formed.

Among Bordeaux’s many uses are applications in autumn and winter to manage:

  • Fire blight on pears and apples;
  • Leaf curl and shot hole on peaches and nectarines;
  • Downy mildew and powdery mildew on grapes;
  • Peacock spot on olives;
  • Walnut blight on walnut; and
  • Black spot on roses.

How to prepare the Bordeaux Mixture:

Ideally solutions should be prepared fresh. The conventional method of describing the mixture’s composition is to give the weight of CuSO4, the weight of hydrated lime and the volume of water, in that order. The percentage of the weight of CuSO4 to the weight of water employed determines the concentration of the mixture. Thus a 1% Bordeaux mixture, which is typical, would have the formula 1:1:100, with the first “1” representing 1 kg CuSO4 (pentahydrate), the second representing 1 kg hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide), and the 100 representing 100 litres (100 kg) water. As CuSO4 contains 25% copper, the copper content of a 1% Bordeaux mixture would be 0.25%.

For small-scale preparation: add 3 1/3 tablespoons of copper sulfate and 10 tablespoons of  hydrated lime in 5 Litres of water.

To make – dissolve the copper sulphate in half the water and dissolve the hydrated lime in the other half of the water. When both are fully dissolved, mix the two solutions together and stir well.

Please Note: it is important that metal containers in particular, iron, are not used to make up the Bordeaux solution. Use wooden or plastic containers.

Bordeaux mixture has been found to be harmful to fish, livestock and—due to potential build up of copper in the soil—earthworms.

Because Bordeaux can leave a blue-green discoloration on plants or painted surfaces, use it on dormant, deciduous plants that are away from buildings and fences.

How to use Bordeaux Mixture.

Spraying with Bordeaux mixture should be carried out before the season of spores starts. Typical usage solutions are 0.5% to 1.0% Bordeaux mix. Do not use solutions stronger than 1% as this may harm plants. Apply at 2 to 3 week intervals to give complete protection.

When applying Bordeaux, be sure to wear protective clothing, including goggles, because the spray deposit is corrosive, can permanently stain clothing, and is difficult to wash off.

Where to buy copper sulphate online UK

Where to buy hydrated lime / calcium hydroxide online UK

How to make Bordeaux Mixture with Copper Sulfate and Calcium Hydroxide

Copper sulphate Pentahydrate

calcium hydroxide

Copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4), is a common salt of copper. Copper sulfate exists as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydration. The anhydrous form is a pale green or gray-white powder, while the hydrated form is bright blue. The archaic name for copper(II) sulfate is “blue vitriol” or “bluestone”. The most common form of copper sulphate is in the pentahydrate form and there are over 100 manufacturers producing around 200,000 tonnes per annum. Approximately three-quarters of copper sulphate pentahydrate is used in agriculture, principally as a fungicide, but also for treating copper-deficient soils. Two commonly used fungicide solutions containing copper sulphate are the Bordeaux Mixture and the Burgundy Mixture.

What is a Bordeaux Mixture ?

The Bordeaux mixture (also known as the Bordo Mix) was developed in the 19th century in France to control a downy mildew that caused problems on vines in the Bordeaux region of France. It contains a blend of copper sulphate and hydrated lime in water and is used to control different diseases on a wide range of plants and crops. It is used mainly to control garden, vineyard, nursery and farm infestations of fungi. It is the copper ions in the bordeaux mixture which kills the fungal spores by preventing the spores germinating. As such, the product is only effective as a prevention and not as a treatment for the fungus after it has formed.

Among Bordeaux’s many uses are applications in autumn and winter to manage:

  • Fire blight on pears and apples;
  • Leaf curl and shot hole on peaches and nectarines;
  • Downy mildew and powdery mildew on grapes;
  • Peacock spot on olives;
  • Walnut blight on walnut; and
  • Black spot on roses.

How to prepare the Bordeaux Mixture:

Ideally solutions should be prepared fresh. The conventional method of describing the mixture’s composition is to give the weight of CuSO4, the weight of hydrated lime and the volume of water, in that order. The percentage of the weight of CuSO4 to the weight of water employed determines the concentration of the mixture. Thus a 1% Bordeaux mixture, which is typical, would have the formula 1:1:100, with the first “1” representing 1 kg CuSO4 (pentahydrate), the second representing 1 kg hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide), and the 100 representing 100 litres (100 kg) water. As CuSO4 contains 25% copper, the copper content of a 1% Bordeaux mixture would be 0.25%.

For small-scale preparation: add 3 1/3 tablespoons of copper sulfate and 10 tablespoons of  hydrated lime in 5 Litres of water.

To make – dissolve the copper sulphate in half the water and dissolve the hydrated lime in the other half of the water. When both are fully dissolved, mix the two solutions together and stir well.

Please Note: it is important that metal containers in particular, iron, are not used to make up the Bordeaux solution. Use wooden or plastic containers.

Bordeaux mixture has been found to be harmful to fish, livestock and—due to potential build up of copper in the soil—earthworms.

Because Bordeaux can leave a blue-green discoloration on plants or painted surfaces, use it on dormant, deciduous plants that are away from buildings and fences.

How to use Bordeaux Mixture.

Spraying with Bordeaux mixture should be carried out before the season of spores starts. Typical usage solutions are 0.5% to 1.0% Bordeaux mix. Do not use solutions stronger than 1% as this may harm plants. Apply at 2 to 3 week intervals to give complete protection.

When applying Bordeaux, be sure to wear protective clothing, including goggles, because the spray deposit is corrosive, can permanently stain clothing, and is difficult to wash off.

Where to buy copper sulphate online UK

Where to buy hydrated lime / calcium hydroxide online UK

How To Change The Color Of Hydrangeas With Aluminum Sulfate

Hydrangeas are fascinating in that, unlike most other plants, the color of their flowers can change dramatically.

It would be nice if one could change the color of hydrangeas easily. But for most of us, it is not easy. The people who have the most control over the color of their hydrangeas are those who grow them in containers. It is much easier to control or alter the pH of the soil in a container than it is in the ground.

On the other hand, hydrangeas often change color on their own when they are planted or transplanted. They are adjusting to the new environment. It is not unusual to see several different colors on one shrub the next year after planting.

It is much easier to change a hydrangea from pink to blue than it is from blue to pink. Changing a hydrangea from pink to blue entails adding aluminum to the soil.

Changing from blue to pink means subtracting aluminum from the soil or taking it out of reach of the hydrangea. This can be achieved by first treating the soil with a phosphorous based fertilizer followed by a treatment of lime or calcium. the pH should be raised to 6.0 to 6.5 but never higher than this.

In order to change the flowers of the hydrangea from pink to blue there needs to be aluminium present in the soil and a pH of less than 7 ideally between 5.2 and 5.5 (Acidic). Only plants older than 2 years which are established should be treated. Before commencing treatment to change colour it is strongly advisable to water plants thoroughly every day for a week. Where possible test soil around hydrangeas for pH.

Add 15g (1 tablespoon) of aluminium sulphate in a litre of warm water and allow to sit for 15-30 minutes to dissolve. Add this to a watering can and make up to 5 litres with cold water. Apply the solution around the based of the hydrangea. DO NOT OVERUSE as making the soil too acidic can result in damage to the roots. Check the pH and maintain it between 5.2 and 5.5. Other simple things you can do include adding as grass clippings, coffee grounds and fruit or vegetable peelings to help lower pH levels. Potassium rich fertilizers will also help to achiev this.

Where to Buy Aluminum Sulphate online UK