What is Glycerine
Glycerine BP is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerine also known as Glycerol is sweet-tasting and of low toxicity. Glycerine has three hydrophilic hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature.
- Chemical Names: Glycerol, Glycerin, 1, 2, 3 propane triol, Trihdroxy propane.
- Description: Clear, colourless, odourless hydroscopic syrupy liquid.
- EINECS: 200–289–5
- CAS No: 56–81–5
- FORMULA: C3H8O3
- Glycerine content: Min 99.9%
- Specific gravity 25/25oC: Not less than 1.257
- Refractive index: 1.471–1.474
- Viscosity: 1.2–1.4 Pa.s
Meets the requirements of: Miscellaneous Food Additives Regulations 1995. EC Directive 98/86/EC. EP/BP 1999 and USP XXII
*BP test method
In organic synthesis, glycerol is used as a readily available prochiral building block.
Glycerin can also serve as a substitute for petroleum based products. Glycerin derived epichlorohydrin and propylene glycol are substitutes for petroleum-based propylene.
Research laboratory usage
Glycerol is a common component of solvents for enzymatic reagents stored at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius due to the depression of the freezing temperature of solutions with high concentrations of glycerol. It is also dissolved in water to reduce damage by ice crystals to laboratory organisms that are stored in frozen solutions, such as bacteria, nematodes, and fruit flies. Samples are loaded into agarose gel electrophoresis mixed in loading buffers that mainly consist of glycerol; when the sample is injected into wells, the glycerol causes the solution to sink through the running buffer to the bottom of the well.
Pharmaceutical and personal care applications
Glycerol is used in medical and pharmaceutcal and personal care preparations, mainly as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication and as humactant or moisturiser. It is found in cough syrups, elixirs and toothpaste, mouthwashes, skin care products, shaving cream, hair care products, and soaps.
As a 10% solution, glycerol prevents tannins from precipitating in ethanol extracts of plants (tinctures). It is also used as a substitute for ethanol as a solvent in preparing herbal extractions. It is less extractive and is approximately 30% less able to be absorbed by the body.Fluid extract manufacturers often extract herbs in hot water before adding glycerin to make glycerites.
Used as a laxative when introduced into the rectum in suppository or liquid (enema) form; irritates the bowel and induces a hyperosmotic effect.
Glycerol is a component of glycerol soap. Other ingredients include, denatured ethanol, sodium castorate (from castor), sodium cocoate, sodium tallowater, sucrose/sugar, perfume and water. This kind of soap is used by people with sensitive, easily-irritated skin because it prevents skin dryness with it’s moisturising properties. It is possible to make glycerol soap at home.
It is also used in de- icing/anti-icing fluids normally mixed with alcohol or propylene glycol or both and water
In motion-picture production, glycerol is used as a non-evaporating substitute for perspiration on actors. It is also used in the formulation of some types of stage blood.
Some potential uses for glycerol include the following:
- Nicotine carrier for use in electronic cigarettes
- Glycerine acetate (as a potential fuel additive)
- Compost additive
- For Tincture extraction and preservation of Essential oils and chemicals from herbs.
- Citric acid production
- Cosmetic bonding agent for makeup, including: eye shadow, lipstick, lipgloss, and lotions and also including eyedrops as well
- Can be used to moisten hookah tobacco if it’s too dry or bought as “dry” tobacco..
- Conversion to propylene glycol
- Conversion to ethanol
- Glycerol may be used as antifreeze for plants, if mixed with water in a 10% solution. It is believed to be effective at temperatures near –18?C
- Glycerin may serve as a source of energy used in waste water treatment plant digesters
Preserving Tree Branches
- Cut branches when color begins to change, before the leaves are completely tinted. (Fully turned leaves are too dry and brittle.) Beech, oak, wild apple, mountain ash and copper beech are well suited for this method of preservation.
- Use a solution of 2 parts water to 1 part glycerine. The amount needed depends on the size of the branches. (The stems must be in liquid to a depth of 3 to 4 inches.)
- Trim off any small twigs at the bottom of the branch. Slit the bottom of each stem with a sharp knife to 3 or so inches.
- Next, bruise the stalks with a hammer.
- Arrange the branches in a container of the water/glycerine mixture and place in a cool room for a week to ten days. The leaves will last for years! Makes great centerpieces and displays.