Uses of Ferrous Sulphate

Iron (II) sulphate or ferrous sulphate is the chemical compound with the formula FeSO4, known since ancient times as copperas. It is most commonly encountered as the blue-green heptahydrate.  Iron sulphate has many uses:


Uses of Ferrous Sulphate

  • It is used as a lawn conditioner and moss killer. More Info
  • Industrially, ferrous sulphate is mainly used as a precursor to other iron compounds.
  • It is a reducing agent, mostly for the reduction of chromate in cement.
  • Used in the manufacture of inks.
  • It is used a mordant for wool dyeing.
  • Ferrous sulphate can also be used to stain concrete and some lime stones and sandstones a yellowish rust colour.
  • Woodworkers use ferrous sulphate solutions to colour maple wood a silvery hue.
  • In horticulture it is used for treating iron chlorosis (yellowing of foliage caused by iron deficiency). Although not as rapid-acting as iron chelate, its effects are longer-lasting. It can be mixed with compost and dug into to the soil to create a store which can last for years.
  • Ferrous sulphate is sometimes added to the cooling water flowing through the brass tubes of a turbine condenser. It forms a corrosion-resistant, protective coating on the inside of the tube.
  • It has been applied for the purification of water by flocculation and for phosphate removal in municipal and industrial sewage treatment plants to prevent eutrophication of surface water bodies.
  • It is used as a traditional method of treating wood panel on houses, either alone dissolved in water or as a component of water-based paint.

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What is EDTA?

EDTA, also known as disodium EDTA, EDTA disodium or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, is a widely used chemical compound found in personal care, skin care, processed foods, cosmetic preparations and cleaning products. EDTA has extensive medical, engineering, agricultural and industrial applications as well. With its wide range of uses and frequent presence in our everyday lives, it is important to know about the purpose of EDTA, how it is used and if there are any dangers involved in its use.

  • Industrial cleaning: complexation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions, binding of heavy metals.
  • Detergents: complexation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (reduction of water hardness).
  • Photography: use of Fe(III)EDTA as oxidizing agent.
  • Pulp and paper industry: complexation of heavy metals during chlorine-free bleaching, stabilization of hydrogen peroxide.
  • Textile industry: complexation of heavy metals, bleach stabilizer.
  • Hydroponics: iron-EDTA is used to make iron more soluble in nutrient solutions.

More specialised uses of EDTA are:

  • Food: added as preservative to prevent catalytic oxidation by metal ions or stabilizer and for iron fortification.
  • Approved by the FDA as a preservative in packaged foods, vitamins, and baby food.
  • Personal care: added to cosmetics to improve product stability.
  • Oil production: added into the borehole to inhibit mineral precipitation.
  • Dairy and beverage industry: cleaning milk stains from bottles.
  • Flue gas cleaning: removal of NOx.
  • Dentistry as a root canal irrigant to remove organic and inorganic debris.
  • Soft drinks containing ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, to lessen the formation of benzene (a carcinogen).
  • Recycling: rejuvenate old lead acid batteries.


  • EDTA is used in chelation therapy for acute hypocalcaemia, mercury poisoning and lead poisoning.
  • Combined with chromium, EDTA is used to evaluate kidney function. It is administered intravenously and its filtration into the urine is monitored. This method is considered the gold standard for evaluating glomerular filtration rate, Cr-EDTA’s sole way out of the body is via glomerular filtration as it is not secreted or metabolised in any other way.
  • Used as anticoagulant for blood samples
  • In veterinary ophthalmology EDTA may be used as an anticollagenase to prevent the worsening of corneal ulcers in animals.

In laboratory science, EDTA is also used for:

  • Scavenging metal ions: in biochemistry and molecular biology, ion depletion is commonly used to inactivate metal-dependent enzymes which could damage DNA or proteins
  • Complexometric titrations.
  • Buffer solutions.
  • Determination of water hardness.
  • EDTA may be used as a masking agent to remove a metal ion which would interfere with the analysis of a second metal ion present
  • An anticoagulant in medical and laboratory equipment.
  • A preservative (usually to enhance the action of another preservative such as benzalkonium or thiomersal) in ocular preparations and eye drops.
  • A titrant used to determine nickel concentration in an electroless nickel plating bath.
  • In metallography to remove staining due to etchants. Metal oxides are removed by gently swabbing with EDTA and rinsing in water.

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The Uses of Propylene Glycol

Propylene glycol, also called 1,2-propanediol or propane-1,2-diol, is an organic compound (a diol or double alcohol) with formula C3H8O2 or HO-CH2-CHOH-CH3. It is a colourless, sweet tasting liquid which has many practical applications. Propylene glycol is used:

As a solvent in many pharmaceuticals, including oral, injectable and topical formulations. Notably, diazepam, which is insoluble in water, uses propylene glycol as its solvent in its clinical, injectable form.
As a moisturizer in medicines, cosmetics, food, toothpaste, shampoo, mouth wash, hair care and tobacco products
As a carrier in fragrance oils
As an ingredient in massage oils
In hand sanitizers, antibacterial lotions, and saline solutions
In smoke machines to make artificial smoke for use in fire-fighters’ training and theatrical productions.
In electronic cigarettes, as a vaporizable base for diluting the nicotine liquid
As an ingredient, along with wax and gelatine, in the production of paintballs.
As a moisture stabilizer (humectant) for snus (Swedish style snuff).
As a cooling agent for beer and wine glycol jacketed fermentation tanks
As a non-toxic antifreeze for winterizing drinking water systems, and in applications where the used antifreeze eventually will be drained into the soil, water, or a septic system.
As a less-toxic antifreeze in solar water heating systems
As a solvent used in mixing photographic chemicals, such as film developers
In cryonics
As a working fluid in hydraulic presses
As a coolant in liquid cooling systems
To regulate humidity in a cigar humidor.
As the killing and preserving agent in pitfall traps, usually used to capture ground beetles
As an additive to pipe tobacco to prevent dehydration.
To treat livestock ketosis.
As the main ingredient in deodorant sticks.
To de-ice aircraft.
As an ingredient in UV or black light tattoo ink
As a lubricant in air conditioning compressors.
In the manufacture of lava lamps

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Using Hydrogen Peroxide for Cleaning

Hydrogen peroxide is a great way to clean all sorts of things. It works well at killing germs, whitening items, cleaning, and even fighting mould and mildew. In fact, it is a good replacement for bleach and can be used in all the ways that bleach can without the harmful side effects, dangerous fumes, and harm to the environment. You can use bleach all over the house and in a wide range of methods for a very sparkling home that has less bacteria.

Surfaces. Put hydrogen peroxide 3% into a spray bottle and use it as an all purpose cleaner. This can be used for appliances, counters, sinks, dish racks, and other surfaces in the kitchen. In addition, it can be used as a cleaner in the shower, tub, toilet, and the bathroom sink. Spray the surface, leave it for a few moments and wipe it clean for a fresh smelling and clean surface.

Floors. Use your spray bottle to spray the floor down and wipe it clean. Or add 1 cup of peroxide 3% to 1/2 gallon of hot water and give your floor a really good scrubbing.

Toilets. Pour hydrogen peroxide 3% from the bottle up and around the rim of the toilet. Pour additional hydrogen peroxide 3% on your brush. Scrub the toilet as usual. This will kill bacteria and clean it sparkling. It is also a good idea to spray down any surfaces on top, down the sides, and around the base with hydrogen peroxide 3% from your spray bottle for a very clean effect.

Mould and mildew. Hydrogen peroxide 3% will kill mould and mildew without the harsh results of bleach. Spray on heavily to mould and mildew spots or stains and let sit for ten minutes. Scrub clean.

Dishes. Add 1/2 cup of hydrogen peroxide 3% to your dishwasher or dish water and have cleaner dishes. This will aid in the cleaning, add a sparkling touch, and will kill bacteria. Plus if it is used in a dishwasher it will help keep the dishwasher cleaner longer.

Laundry. Add a cap full (the white cap on the bottle) to the laundry with about 1/2 the normal amount of soap and you will have cleaner laundry that is also whiter. If you use bleach on your whites then replace the bleach with peroxide 3% and wash as normal for white whites without the harm of bleach.

Stains. Peroxide 3% can help remove organic stains from grout, cloth, and carpet

It can bleach so test the material in a place that isn’t as easily seen. Then use it on the stain. Pour directly on stain, scrub clean with a brush and rinse well.

Sponges. Keep your sponges clean by soaking it in hydrogen peroxide 3% and then letting it dry. You will want to leave it in a dish of peroxide 3% (it can be diluted for making it go father, use 50% water and 50% peroxide 3%). Let soak five to ten minutes (or more). This will kill the bacteria in the deepest parts of the sponge. Then let it dry in the air. Let it dry thoroughly before using again.

Hydrogen peroxide 3% is inexpensive, easy to use, and can keep your house clean. Use it all over and you will have fewer bacteria without adding dangerous chemicals to your house. It is safe for people and their pets, won’t harm the environment, and will still keep your house clean.


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Using Hydrogen Peroxide for Ailments

Hydrogen peroxide has many different medicinal uses.  It has been used over the years in home remedies, listed below are a few of these remedies.

  • A mixture of half 3% hydrogen peroxide and half water can be used to treat canker sores (mouth ulcers). Use a cotton bud to apply the mixture directly to the canker sore.
  • Swish your toothbrush in 1 cup of 3% hydrogen peroxide solution prior to use. If you don’t like the taste of hydrogen peroxide, you may rinse your toothbrush with clean water prior to use, but if you choose not to rinse the peroxide mixture off before brushing your teeth, in addition to disinfecting your toothbrush, the hydrogen peroxide will help whiten your teeth.
  • Hydrogen peroxide for foot fungus may work, although scientific studies have not been done to confirm its usefulness. Use a 3% solution, as the stronger preparations are less safe and may cause skin reactions. Approaches include soaking in the peroxide, wiping onto the affected areas several times daily, or spraying it on and allowing it to dry. It is likely to produce results much faster for athletes foot fungus than for a nail infection. On thing is undeniable: as a foot fungus remedy, it is one of the cheapest.
  • Remarkable results can be achieved in curing colds and the flu within 12-14 hours when we administer a few drops of 3% Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) into each ear. The H2O2 starts working within 2-3 minutes in killing the cold or flu. There will be some bubbling and in some cases mild stinging might occur. Wait until the bubbling subsides – usually a few minutes – then drain onto a tissue and repeat with the other ear.
  • If you have a toothache, put a capful of 3% hydrogen peroxide into your mouth and hold it for ten minutes several times a day. This will relieve the pain.
  • Put half a bottle of 3% hydrogen peroxide in your bath to help rid boils, fungus, or other skin infections.
  • If you like a natural look to your hair, spray a solution of half 6% hydrogen peroxide half water on your wet hair after a shower and comb it through. You will not have the peroxide burnt blonde hair like the hair dye packages, but more natural highlights if your hair is a light brown, faddish, or dirty blonde.  It also lightens gradually so it’s not a drastic change.

If you have any of your own home remedies using hydrogen peroxide, please feel free to post them up in the comments section.


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Uses of Boric Acid

What is Boric Acid?

Boric acid (also known as boracic acid or orthoboric acid) is a naturally occurring compound containing the elements hydrogen, boron and oxygen (H3BO3). In nature, the element boron does not exist by itself. Boron is combined with other common elements, such as sodium to make salts like borax and with oxygen to make boric acid. Boron is considered to be an essential micronutrient for plants and perhaps humans. Boron in the diet most commonly comes from the boric acid naturally present in most foods. Fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts are particularly high in boron. In fact, the average person eats between one to three milligrams of boron each day as part of a normal healthy diet. Boric acid also occurs naturally in water and soil.

Boric acid crystals are white, odourless, and nearly tasteless. It looks like fine table salt in the granular form or like baby powder in the powdered form. Borates (the general term associated with boron containing minerals such as borax and boric acid) most commonly originate in dried salt lake beds of deserts or in arid areas or other geographic regions that expose similar deposits

Uses of Boric Acid

  • Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics: boric acid is a mild antiseptic as well as a mild acid that inhibits the growth of microorganisms on the external surfaces of the body.  It can also be used for minor cuts and burns. It is commonly used in contact lens solutions, eye disinfectants, vaginal remedies, baby powder, anti-aging preparations and similar external applications.

  • Nutritional Supplements: boric acid and other borates are increasingly being used in over-the counter nutritional supplements as a source of boron. It is thought that boron has a potential therapeutic value in promoting bone and joint health as well as having a limiting effect on arthritis symptoms. It is very important to note that the health effects of boric acid and boron-based supplements are based on very new studies and/or are based solely on the claims of the manufacturers’ of the supplements. It should not be implied that boric acid should be directly ingested as a supplement or for any other reason.


  • Flame Retardants: boric acid inhibits the release of combustible gases from burning cellulosic materials, such as wood, cotton, and paper-based products. Boric acid also releases chemically bonded water to further reduce combustion. A carbon char is formed that further inhibits combustion. Futons, mattresses, upholstered furniture, insulation, and gypsum board are common consumer items that use boric acid as a flame retardant. Plastics, textiles, specialty coatings, and other industrial products also contain boric acid to strengthen their ability to withstand exposure to flames.


  • Glass and Fibreglass: heat resistant, borosilicate, and other specialty glasses rely on boric acid and other similar borates to increase the chemical and temperature resistance of the glass. Halogen light bulbs, ovenware, microwavable glassware, laboratory glassware, and many everyday glass items are enhanced by the addition of boric acid. Boric acid also aids in the manufacture of fibreglass, which is used as insulation as well as in textile fibreglass (a fabric-like material commonly used in skis, circuit boards, and other similar applications).
  • Wood Preservatives: boric acid is a common source of boron compounds when used in the formulation of products that control fungus and insects. Fungi are plants that contain no chlorophyll and must have an outside source of food. Boron compounds inhibit the growth of fungus and have been demonstrated to be a reliable wood preservative. Similarly, boric acid is used in swimming pools and spas as a safer and “softer feeling” substitute for chlorine. Boric acid, borax, and other salts are commonly used to soften pool water and prevent contamination.
  • Pest Control: Boric acid is a natural and increasingly popular insect control product. Unlike hornet or ant sprays, boric acid does not kill bugs on contact using highly toxic chemicals. Rather, it acts as a desiccant that dehydrates many insects by causing tiny cracks or fissures in their exoskeletons. This eventually dries them out. The saltiness of boric acid also interferes with their very simple electrolytic metabolism.
  • Ear Wash for Dogs: Boric Acid can be mixed with vinegar, witch hazel and gentian violet to make an ear wash for dogs with a minor ear infection.

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Top 10 everyday uses of Borax.

If you are viewing this article it is a safe assumption that you have heard of Borax. In fact, you are probably curious as to why it is regarded as such a valuable asset for everyday chores. Well, we are here to help.

Borax has been widely used for centuries. Borax mining train (above) circa late 1800’s.

1. Rub out heavy sink stains

Get rid of those stubborn stains — even rust — in your stain-less steel or porcelain sink. Make a paste of 1 cup borax and 1/4 cup lemon juice. Put some of the paste on a cloth or sponge and rub it into the stain, then rinse with running warm water. The stain should wash away with the paste.

2. Remove Rug and Carpet Stains

Remove stubborn stains from rugs and carpets. Thoroughly dampen the area, then rub in some borax. Let the area dry, then vacuum or blot it with a solution of equal parts vinegar and soapy water and let dry. Repeat if necessary. Don’t forget to first test the procedure on an inconspicuous corner of the rug or on a carpet scrap before applying it to the stain.

3. Eliminate urine odour on mattresses

Toilet training can be a rough experience for all the parties involved. If your child has an “accident” in bed, here’s how to get rid of any lingering smell: Dampen the area, then rub in some borax. Let it dry, then vacuum up the powder.

4. Unblock your drain.

Borax is a safe drain opener and a great alternative to those expensive store-bought drain cleaners. Just mix a cup of Borax with some boiling water and empty it down the drain. Any grease stuck in your drain that is causing the clog will melt away.

5. Keep away weeds and ants

Get the jump on those weeds that grow in the cracks of the concrete outside your house by sprinkling borax into all the crevices where you’ve seen weeds grow in the past. It will kill them off before they have a chance to take root. When applied around the foundation of your home, it will also keep ants and other six-legged intruders from entering your house. But be very careful when applying borax — it is toxic to plants.

6. Clean windows and mirrors

Want to get windows and mirrors spotless and streakless? Wash them with a clean sponge dipped in 2 tablespoons borax dissolved in 3 cups water.

7. Smelly bin?

Sprinkle some Borax into the bottoms of your garbage bin to keep it smelling fresh.

8. Help! My cat smells bad and has fleas!

Borax can help! To control the odor of your cats litter box try mixing Borax in with the cat litter. Borax can also kill fleas in your home, simply sprinkle Borax on your carpet and let it set for an hour or more then vacuum it away.

9. Soften Hard Water

If you have hard water add a bit of Borax to your bath to soften it. Hard water makes soaps and shampoos less effective.

And last but not least.

10. Remove mildew from you household and car fabric

To remove mildew from upholstery and other fabrics, soak a sponge in a solution of 1/2 cup borax dissolved in 2 cups hot water, and rub it into the affected areas. Let it soak in for several hours until the stain disappears, then rinse well. To remove mildew from clothing, soak it in a solution of 2 cups borax in 2 quarts (2 litres) water.

There are many more uses of Borax, but we feel that these 10 are the most commonly used and certainly enough to get you going. So what are you waiting for, go and buy borax today and start saving money on all those other expensive cleaning products you no longer need!

A little extra information:

Borax, or sodium borate, is a naturally occurring mineral compound best known as a laundry booster and water softener. Borax is also excellent as a multi-purpose household cleaner with many uses throughout your house including craft projects. Borax is not flammable and is not reactive. It can be mixed with most other cleaning agents, including chlorine bleach.